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Ovarian Cyst - Symptoms and Treatment

Ovarian cysts are small fluid-filled sacs that develop on a woman's ovaries. Most cysts are harmless, but some may cause problems such as bleeding and pain, and surgery may be required to remove those cysts. Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled, sac-like structures within an ovary . The term cyst refers to a fluid-filled structure. Any ovarian follicle that is larger than about 2 centimeters is termed an ovarian cyst. The ovaries also make the hormones oestrogen and progestogen, which help to regulate the menstrual cycle.Most cysts are diagnosed by ultrasound.The treatment of ovarian cysts varies from observation and monitoring to surgical procedures.

Causes of Ovarian Cyst

1) The most common cause is follicular cyst, which results from the growth of a follicle. Follicular cysts form when the follicle grows larger than normal during the menstrual cycle and does not open to release the egg.

2) Corpus luteum cysts are less common. They develop when the tissue that is left behind after an egg has been released (the corpus luteum), fills with fluid or blood

3) Dermoid cyst or a may develop (sometimes called a benign mature cystic teratoma). This type of cyst can contain a range of tissues , such as hair, skin or teeth

Other causes:

  • History of previous ovarian cysts
  • Irregular menstrual cycles
  • Increased upper body fat distribution
  • Early menstruation (11 years or younger)
  • Infertility
  • Hypothyroidism or hormonal imbalance
  • Tamoxifen therapy for breast cancer
  • Ovarian cancer and cancer that has spread to outside the ovary

Syptoms of Ovarian Cyst

Common symptoms are :

  • Pain and discomfort low down in your abdomen. This may come and go, or be more lasting.
  • changes to in periods. They may become irregular, or be heavier or lighter than normal;
  • Depending on where the cyst is and its size, it may put pressure on the bladder or bowels, making you need to go to the toilet more often;
  • In rare cases, ovarian cysts can cause abnormal amounts of hormones to be produced. This can affect your periods, and speed up or change the way your breasts and body hair grow;
  • If you have endometriosis ( womb lining in other parts of the body) or polycystic ovarian syndrome (multiple cysts in the ovaries )
  • Lower abdominal or pelvic pain, which may start and stop and may be severe, sudden, and sharp
  • Long-term pelvic pain during menstrual period
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Infertility

Treatment of Ovarian Cyst

1) Surgery. If the cyst doesn't go away after several menstrual periods, has gotten larger, looks unusual on the ultrasound, causes pain then doctor may switch towards surgery.

  • Laparoscopy
  • Laparotomy

2) Birth control pills. If you frequently develop cysts, your doctor may prescribe birth control pills to prevent you from ovulating



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