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Myocardial Infarction - Symptoms and Treatment

Myocardial infarction is a term which is also called as heart attack. Means there is death of some of the muscle cells of the heart as a result of a lack of supply of oxygen and other nutrients. This lack of supply is caused by closure of the artery ("coronary artery") that supplies that particular part of the heart muscle with blood. This mainly occurs at the time from the process of arteriosclerosis ("hardening of the arteries") in coronary vessels. Without prompt treatment, this can lead to damage to the affected part of the heart.

Causes of Myocardial Infarction

Thrombosis is the main cause of (MI). usually caused by a complete blockage of a coronary artery by a blood clot forming. This occurs when there is advanced coronary artery disease in which the blood vessel, containing fatty deposits, is damaged. This encourages a blood clot to form on the damaged surface inside the artery.

  • A blood clot that blocks one of the coronary arteries (the blood vessels that bring blood and oxygen to the heart muscle)
  • Rupture of unstable plaque (atherosclerosis)
  • "Endothelial dysfunction"

Symptoms of Myocardial Infarction

Chest pain or pressure is a common symptom of heart attack, but can also be a symptom of many other conditions :

  • Pain, heaviness, tightness, burning-in chest, back, left arm, jaw, neck
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Dizziness, weakness
  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Irregular heartbeat

Treatment of Myocardial Infarction

Treatment of Myocardial Infarction can be done through these ways : drug therapy , angioplasty (using one of several methods to clear the blocked blood vessel, such as inflating a balloon inside it or holding it open with a device called a stent), and surgery .

  • Once the artery is open, the heart attack is generally halted and the patient becomes pain free.
  • The patient is most likely to make a good recovery if reperfusion can be established in the first 4-6 hours of a heart attack.
  • Anti-platelet medicines, for example aspirin, reduce the tendency of platelets (a type of blood cell) in the blood to clump and clot. These medicines help to prevent the arteries from becoming blocked again.
  • Nitroglycerin, a vasodilator (blood vessel dilator), widens the blood vessel by relaxing the muscular wall of the blood vessel.
  • ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) inhibitors, another type of vasodilator, improve the heart muscle healing process. They do this by blocking the production of a hormone (chemical signal carried in the blood) called angiotensin II.
  • Beta-blocking agents interfere with the nerves controlling the heart by blocking the action of a chemical they release called noradrenaline. They also block a hormone (chemical carried in the blood) called adrenaline. This makes the heart beat more slowly and less forcibly, which decreases the amount of muscle damage and can help to prevent serious arrhythmias.

Once treated acutely for a heart attack, changing lifestyle factors and taking medications as prescribed as well as, possibly, supplements is very important for avoiding recurrent heart attacks and even death. Certain herbal remedies as well as relaxation techniques may also be considered.



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