Thalassaemia - Symptoms and Treatment
Thalassaemia is an Disordered inherited disease of the red blood cells classified as a hemoglobinopathy in which there is an abnormality in one or more of the globin genes. . Thalassaemia is passed from parent to child and is the most common inherited blood disorder in the world. Thalassaemia can affect anyone of any nationality, but it is particularly prevalent in people with ancestry from Mediterranean countries and across a broad region extending through India, the Middle East and South East Asia.
There are two forms of Thalassaemia.
1. Thalassaemia Major
2. Thalassaemia Minor (Trait)
Symptoms of Thalassaemia
Thalassemia characterised in all populations and ethnic groups. Couples who both have -thalassaemia minor may elect not to have children and may choose to adopt, foster or consider using donor sperm or eggs. The following symptoms appear in early childhood:
- Severe anaemia, because red blood cells are produced without sufficient oxygen-carrying haemoglobin
- Sleep difficulties
- Poor appetite
- Failure to grow and thrive
- Enlargement of organs, such as the spleen and liver.
Causes of Thalassaemia
There is not a known cause for Thalassaemia except that is inherited through the genes. The causes are listed below :
- The genes received from one's parents before birth determine whether a person will have thalassemia.
- The clinical severity of thalassemia varies tremendously depending on the exact nature of the genes that a person inherits
- The cells of the body contain information, in the form of genes, for the body to make all the necessary structural components and chemicals to ensure normal function.
- The anaemia develops during the first few years of life and frequent blood transfusions must be given to maintain the life of a person who has this type of thalassaemia.
Treatment of Thalassaemia
The Treatment of Thalassaemia are include these factor:
- The most common treatment for all major forms of thalassemia is red blood cell transfusions.
- Halassemias may co-exist with other deficiencies such as folic acid (or folate, a B-complex vitamin) and iron deficiency.
- Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen and nutrients to cells in the body.
- Iron chelators can be used to remove excess iron from the blood.
- Alpha or beta thalassaemia minor (or trait) are mild types of thalassaemia, which have no effect on good health and need no treatment.
- prenatal testing using chorionic villus sampling (CVS) or amniocentesis can detect or rule out thalassemia in the fetus
- Thalassemia Intermedia patients vary a lot in their treatment needs depending on the severity of their anemia.
- Oral iron chelators (tablets) may be prescribed where the infusion treatment is unsuitable or ineffective.