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Anal Fissures Hemorrhoids - Symptoms and Treatment

An anal fissure is a tear in the internal lining of the anus. This area is called the anal mucosa. This break in the anal lining often reopens during bowel movements. An anal fissure, also known as fissure-in-ano, may cause itching, pain or bleeding. Anal fissures occur in the specialized tissue that lines the anus and anal canal, called anoderm. At a line just inside the anus referred to as the anal verge or intersphincteric groove the skin (dermis) of the inner buttocks changes to anoderm. Unlike skin, anoderm has no hairs, sweat glands, or sebaceous (oil) glands and contains a larger number of somatic sensory nerves that sense light touch and pain. (The abundance of nerves explains why anal fissures are so painful.) The hairless, gland-less, extremely sensitive anoderm continues for the entire length of the anal canal until it meets the demarcating line for the rectum, called the dentate line. (The rectum is the distal 15 cm of the colon that lies just above the anus and rectum and just below the sigmoid colon.). Most anal fissures heal with home treatment after a few days or weeks (acute anal fissures). Occasionally a fissure takes more than 6 weeks to heal (chronic anal fissure), in which case it usually requires medication to heal. Surgery may be necessary for fissures that do not heal with medication. Anal fissures affect people of all ages, particularly young and otherwise healthy people. They are equally common in men and women. Sometimes an anal fissure and a hemorrhoid develop at the same time.

Anal fissure is a condition affecting all age groups. It is an acute tear or a chronic ulcer a in the tissue of the anal canal below the dentate line. Fissures are a common condition of the anus and anal canal and are responsible for 6-15% of the visits to a colonic and rectal (colorectal) surgeon. They affect men and women equally and both the young and the old. Fissures usually cause pain during bowel movements that often is severe. A fissure can be acute or chronic. The chronic condition is often associated with a buildup of tissue at the external end of the tear. This is called a sentinel pile and may be noticed by an affected person. The internal end may also have a buildup of tissue that an affected person can rarely see. When a fissure is present, the mucosa of the anus opens each time it is stretched to allow for a bowel movement. This continual opening prevents healing. It can also leave scar tissue. Most chronic fissures are in the center of the back of the anus. The anal sphincter muscles need to relax for a person to have a bowel movement. A person with a fissure may have muscles that are too tight. This makes bowel movements painful.

Causes of Anal Fissures Hemorrhoids

The common Causes of Anal Fissures Hemorrhoids :

  • Constipation (dry, hard bowel movements).
  • Crohn's disease and Ulcerative colitis.
  • Diarrhea .
  • Tight sphincter muscles.
  • Inflammation of the rectal area.
  • Tight sphincter muscles.

Symptoms of Anal Fissures Hemorrhoids

Some sign and Symptoms related to Anal Fissures Hemorrhoids :

  • Swelling Rectal bleeding.
  • Rectal Itching.
  • Anal discharge.
  • Constipation.
  • Pain during, and even hours after, defecation.
  • Visible tear in the anus.
  • Blood on the stool or on toilet paper or toilet bowl.

Treatment of Anal Fissures Hemorrhoids

  • Drinking more fluids.
  • Sitz baths (soaking anal area in plain warm water)
  • Eating a high-fiber diet to avoid constipation.
  • Avoid sharp foods that may not be well-digested (i.e., nuts, popcorn, tortilla chips).



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