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Mesenteric Ischemi - Symptoms and Treatment


Mesenteric ischemia is a medical condition in which inflammation and injury of the small intestine result from inadequate blood supply. Ischemia occurs when your blood cannot flow through your arteries as well as it should, and your intestines do not receive the necessary oxygen to perform normally. Mesenteric ischemia usually involves the small intestine. Mesenteric ischemia usually occurs when one or more of your mesenteric arteries narrows or becomes blocked. When this blockage occurs, you can experience severe abdominal pain. Over time, often quickly, the blockage causes tissues in your intestine to die because they lack enough blood flow.

Mesenteric ischemia usually occurs in people older than age 60. --Acute mesenteric ischemia is interruption of intestinal blood flow by embolism, thrombosis, or a low-flow state. It leads to mediator release, inflammation, and ultimately infarction. Abdominal pain is out of proportion to physical findings. Early diagnosis is difficult, but angiography and exploratory laparotomy have the most sensitivity; other imaging modalities often become positive only late in the disease. Treatment is by embolectomy, revascularization of viable segments, or resection; sometimes vasodilator therapy is successful.

Causes of Mesenteric Ischemi

Mesenteric ischemia is caused by the narrowing or blockage (atherosclerosis) of one or more of the three mesenteric arteries. It can also be caused by a blood clot that travels through the bloodstream and blocks one of the mesenteric arteries. A blood clot that breaks away and travels through the bloodstream is called an embolus. This type of acute mesenteric ischemia is life threatening because the blood flow to the intestine is cut off completely, which can cause the intestine to die if not treated immediately.

Signs and Symptoms of Mesenteric Ischemi

Sign and symptoms may include the following :

  • Diarrhea .
  • Nausea and vomiting .
  • Constipation .

Treatment for Mesenteric Ischemi

Treatment may include:

  • A baloon is threaded through the artery and is inflated at the location of the blockage to restore blood flow.
  • If the angiogram shows a specific clot or blockage, then an emergency surgery may be required. Surgery may also be necessary if significant tissue d amage has already occurred.
  • Medicines that dilate the arteries, such as papaverine, is given intravenously to open the clot.

 

 


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