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Raynaud's Disease- Symptoms and Treatment


Raynaud's phenomenon refers to the symptoms of digital ischaemia and the blood supply to these areas is reduced. Raynaud's is primarily a spasmodic peripheral vascular disorder (PVD) resulting in eschemia or insufficient arterial blood flow to the extremities which the blood supply to the extremities,usually the fingers and toes, but sometimes also the ears and nose, is interrupted. During a Raynaud's attack, these arteries narrow, limiting blood circulation to affected areas. The average age of diagnosis is between 20 and 40 years. Women are five times more likely than men to develop primary Raynaud's disease.

Symptoms of Raynaud's Disease

Signs and symptoms of Raynaud's depend on the frequency, duration and severity of the blood vessel spasms that underlie the disorder.During a typical Raynaud's attack the affected area may first become white (pallor) as the blood supply is reduced, then blue (cyanosis) as the oxygen supply to the area is depleted, followed by bright red (rubor) as the blood returns to the area (reactive hyperemia). Age and smoking seem to be associated with Raynaud's disease only in men, while the associations of marital status and alcohol use with Raynaud's disease are usually only observed in women. Symptoms are include:

  • Sequence of color changes in your skin in response to cold or stress
  • Numb, prickly feeling or stinging pain upon warming or relief of stress

Causes of Raynaud's Disease

Raynaud's episodes can be triggered by cold, either by touching cold objects or by being in a cold environment, body specifically reduces blood flow by narrowing the small arteries under the skin of your extremities. The other causes are include:

  • Primary Raynaud's is without an underlying disease or associated medical problem that could provoke vasospasm.
  • Secondary Raynaud's This is Raynaud's caused by an underlying problem. Also called Raynaud's phenomenon, secondary Raynaud's usually affects both of your hands or both feet. Although secondary Raynaud's is less common than the primary form, it's often a more complex and serious disorder. The causes of secondary Raynaud's are 1.Scleroderma
    2 .Lupus.
    3. Rheumatoid arthritis.
    5. Diseases of the arteries.
    6. Carpal tunnel syndrome.
    7. Repetitive trauma.
    8. Smoking.
    9.Certain medications.
    10.Chemical exposure.

Treatment of Raynaud's Disease

There is no known way to prevent the development of Raynaud's disease. All Treatment of Raynauds Disease are include :

  • Prevention
    • Clothing - wearing of thermal fabrics
    • The use of hand warmers or electric gloves
    • Stop smoking
    • Change job if vibration induces
    • Avoid sympathetic stimulants
  • Topical agents
    • GTN paste
    • Prostaglandin analogues
  • Oral agents
    • Sympatholytic agents - reserpine, guanethidine
    • Alpha-blockers - phenoxybenzamine, prazocin
    • Beta-stimulants - terbutaline
    • Vasodilators - nifedipine, diltiazen
    • Fibrinolytic agents - pentoxifylline
    • Serotonin antagonists - ketanserin
  • Invasive
    • Intraarterial reserpine
    • Intravenous iloprost
  • Surgery
    • Thoracic outlet surgery
    • Embolectomy
    • Sympathectomy

 

 


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